ASP.NET Core 3.1 - 2FA User Tokens

This article will describe the implementation of a TwoFactorEnabled property for the user and a related AppUserToken entity/table. I will assume you have downloaded the ASP.NET Core 3.1 - Users Without Identity Project or created a new ASP.NET Core 3.1 Razor Pages project. See Tutorial: Get started with Razor Pages in ASP.NET Core. You should review the earlier articles of the Users Without Identity Project series.

Users Without Identity Project and Article Series

The Users Without Identity Project (UWIP) implements AppUser, a minimal entity which is created by administrators who invite the user to login. To implement 2FA, we need a TwoFactorEnabled property for the user and a related AppUserToken entity.

Add the TwoFactorEnabled property and the virtual AppUserTokens navigational property to AppUser.

Edit Entities > AppUser.cs:
public class AppUser
    public int Id { get; set; }
    [Display(Name = "Login Name")]
    [StringLength(32, ErrorMessage = "The {0} must be at least {2} and at max {1} characters long.", MinimumLength = 6)]
    public string LoginName { get; set; }
    public string LoginNameUppercase { get; set; }
    [MaxLength(84, ErrorMessage = "The {0} is max {1} characters long.")]
    public string PasswordHash { get; set; }
    [Display(Name = "MCP")]
    public bool MustChangePassword { get; set; }
    [Display(Name = "2FA")]
    public bool TwoFactorEnabled { get; set; }
    [Display(Name = "Admin")]
    public bool IsAdmin { get; set; }
    public byte[] RowVersion { get; set; }
    public virtual ICollection<AppUserToken> AppUserTokens { get; set; }

Add the AppUserToken entity with the virtual AppUser navigational property.

Entities > AppUserToken.cs:
public class AppUserToken
    public int AppUserId { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public string Value { get; set; }
    public virtual AppUser AppUser { get; set; }

Add the AppUserTokens property to ApplicationDbContext and the composite primary key to the OnModelCreating method.

Edit Data > ApplicationDbContext.cs:
public class ApplicationDbContext : DbContext
    public ApplicationDbContext(DbContextOptions<ApplicationDbContext> options)
        : base(options)

    public DbSet<AppUser> AppUsers { get; set; }
    public DbSet<AppUserToken> AppUserTokens { get; set; }

    protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder builder)

        // Set a unique constraint for LoginNameUppercase
            .HasIndex(u => u.LoginNameUppercase)

        // Composite primary key
            .HasKey(t => new { t.AppUserId, t.Name })

Use the Package Manager Console to add an InitialAppUserTokens migration and update the database. The navigational properties will create a ForeignKey with a cascade delete rule.

public partial class InitialAppUserTokens : Migration
    protected override void Up(MigrationBuilder migrationBuilder)
            name: "TwoFactorEnabled",
            table: "AppUsers",
            nullable: false,
            defaultValue: false);

            name: "AppUserTokens",
            columns: table => new
                AppUserId = table.Column<int>(nullable: false),
                Name = table.Column<string>(maxLength: 128, nullable: false),
                Value = table.Column<string>(nullable: true)
            constraints: table =>
                table.PrimaryKey("PK_AppUserTokens", x => new { x.AppUserId, x.Name })
                    .Annotation("SqlServer:Clustered", false);
                    name: "FK_AppUserTokens_AppUsers_AppUserId",
                    column: x => x.AppUserId,
                    principalTable: "AppUsers",
                    principalColumn: "Id",
                    onDelete: ReferentialAction.Cascade);

    protected override void Down(MigrationBuilder migrationBuilder)
            name: "AppUserTokens");

            name: "TwoFactorEnabled",
            table: "AppUsers");
Update 02/23/2021

I added the Enhanced User Series' article links.

Ken Haggerty
Created 08/20/20
Updated 02/24/21 00:02 GMT

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Article Tags:

2FA Authorization EF Core Model
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